سیروگیسی: بانجھ پن کا علاج یا معاشرتی مسئلہ؟ اسلامی فقہ کی روشنی میں ایک تحقیقی مطالعہ

Surrogacy: A Solution for Infertility or a Social Problem? A Research Study in the Light of Islamic Jurisprudence

  • Waqas Ali Haider PhD Scholar, Department of Islamic Studies, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
  • Dr. Abdul Ghaffar Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Studies, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Yasin Ayoub Department of Islamic Studies, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: Surrogacy, Infertility, Surrogate Mother, Sperm, Alternate Techniques, Islam, Religious

Abstract

Infertility, the inability to reproduce, is a major challenge for many married couples who desire to have children. It has profound psychological, social, economic, and cultural impacts on the individuals and society. In the modern era, various assisted reproductive technologies have emerged to offer solutions for infertility, such as surrogacy. Surrogacy is a practice in which a woman (the surrogate mother) agrees to carry and deliver a child for another person or couple (the intended parents). Surrogacy can take different forms, such as traditional or gestational, altruistic or commercial, depending on the genetic and contractual arrangements involved. Surrogacy raises complex ethical, moral, legal, and social issues that need to be examined from different perspectives, including the religious one. This article aims to explore the Islamic viewpoint on surrogacy, based on the sources of Islamic knowledge, i.e., the Quran, hadith, and the practices of the Prophet (S.A.W). The article argues that surrogacy is not permissible in Islam, as it violates the sanctity of marriage, the lineage of the child, and the dignity of the woman. The article also discusses the implications of surrogacy for the parties involved, such as the intended parents, the surrogate mother, the child, and the society at large. The article highlights the potential harms and risks of surrogacy, such as the exploitation of women, the commodification of children, the disruption of family ties, and the moral decay of society. The article concludes by suggesting some future research directions for religious scholars and policymakers to address the challenges posed by surrogacy.

References

( )سورۃ آل عمران:38

Sūraẗ Āl ʿImrān:38

( )Dr. Altaf Hussain Langrial & Muhammad Muslim, “The Concept of Surrogate Mother in the Modern World in the Islamic Perspective,” Al-Idah 29, no. 2 (2014): 61–92, http://al-idah.szic.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/227/215.

( )Surrogacy in Latin. [accessed on July 29, 2021]. Available from: https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/surrogate

( )Oliphant RE. New York: Aspen Publishers; 2007. Surrogacy in Black law dictionary, family law; p. 349

( )Surrogacy in Britannica. [accessed on July 29, 2021]. Available from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/575390/surrogate-motherhood

( )ندوی،رضی الاسلام،محمد،جدید فقہی مسائل،رحم مادرکااجرت پرحصول اورموجودہ صورتحال اوراسلام کانقطہ نظر،ذی قعدہ وذی الحجہ۱۴۳۴ھ،ستمبر,اکتوبر۲۰۱۳،شمارہ۱۸،ص64

Nadwī, Rāzī al-Islām, Muḥammad, “Jadīd Fiqhī Masā’il,” Raḥm-i Mādar kā Ajr par Ḥaṣūl aur Muǧūda Ṣūrat-i Ḥāl aur Islām kā Nuqṭa-i Naẓar, Ẓil Qaʿda wal Ẓil Ḥiǧǧa 1434 H, September-October 2013, Shumāra 18, Page 64.

( ) Sumaira Mahmood & Dr Shahida Parveen, “Surrogacy in the Light of Islamic Shariah,” Hazara Islamicus 8, no. 2 (2019): 85–106, http://hazaraislamicus.hu.edu.pk/public/uploads/2019/Issue_2/07.pdf.

( )Vaishnavi, G. (2015). History of Surrogacy. In Surrogacy: Medicolegal Issues (pp. 8–8). Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp/books/12585_3

( ) Zucker, D. J. (2021). In/Voluntary Surrogacy in Genesis. The Asbury Journal, 76(1), 9–24. https://doi.org/10.7252/Journal.01.2021S.02

( ) Taebi, M., Bahrami, R., Bagheri-Lankarani, N., & Shahriari, M. (2018). Ethical challenges of embryo donation in embryo donors and recipients. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res, 23, 39.

( ) History of Surrogacy. [accessed on July 30, 2021]. Available from: https://surrogate.com/about-surrogacy/surrogacy-101/history-of-surrogacy/

( ) Vaishnavi, G. (2015). History of Surrogacy. In Surrogacy: Medicolegal Issues (pp. 8–8). Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp/books/12585_3

( ) BANNO, S. N. and K. (2004). Surrogacy. JMAJ, 47(4), 192–203. https://www.med.or.jp/english/pdf/2004_04/192_203.pdf

( ) Vaishnavi, G. (2015b). Inception of Surrogacy Laws in India. Surrogacy: Medicolegal Issues, 59–59. https://doi.org/10.5005/JP/BOOKS/12585_8

( ) Orignal Jurisdiction about Surrogacy in the Federal Shariat Court. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2021, from https://www.federalshariatcourt.gov.pk/Judgments/Sh.Petition No.2-I of 2015.pdf

( ) IVF Turkey | Fertility Treatment in Turkey | IVF Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2021, from https://www.fertilityclinicsabroad.com/ivf-abroad/ivf-turkey/

( ) Hibino, Y. (2020). Non-commercial Surrogacy in Thailand: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications in Local and Global Contexts. Asian Bioethics Review 2020 12:2, 12(2), 135–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/S41649-020-00126-2

( ) Stasi, A. (2017). Protection for Children Born Through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act, B.E. 2558: The Changing Profile of Surrogacy in Thailand. Clinical Medicine Insights: Reproductive Health, 11, 117955811774960. https://doi.org/10.1177/1179558117749603

( ) Human trafficking suspected in Thai nine-baby discovery | The Japan Times. (n.d.). Retrieved August 3, 2021, from https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/08/07/national/thai-lawyer-claims-nine-babies-surrogate-kids-japanese-father/11, 117955811774960. https://doi.org/10.1177/1179558117749603

( ) Human trafficking suspected in Thai nine-baby discovery | The Japan Times. (n.d.). Retrieved August 3, 2021, from https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/08/07/national/thai-lawyer-claims-nine-babies-surrogate-kids-japanese-father/11, 117955811774960. https://doi.org/10.1177/1179558117749603

( ) Jargilo, I. (2016). Regulating the Trade of Commercial Surrogacy in India. Journal of International Business and Law, 15(2), 337–360. https://scholarlycommons.law.hofstra.edu/jibl/vol15/iss2/12

( ) Baby Business: A Study on Indian Market of Commercial Surrogacy and Its Implications. (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2021, from https://paa2015.princeton.edu/papers/152404

( ) Reddy, J. (2020). Indian Surrogacy: Ending Cheap Labor. Santa Clara Journal of International Law, 18(1), 92–123. https://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/scujil/vol18/iss1/1

( ) Jargilo, I. (2016). Regulating the Trade of Commercial Surrogacy in India. Journal of International Business and Law, 15(2), 337–360. https://scholarlycommons.law.hofstra.edu/jibl/vol15/iss2/12

( ) “India is surrogacy capital of world.” (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2021, from http://www.uniindia.com/-india-is-surrogacy-capital-of-world/states/news/1127429.html

( ) Jargilo, I. (2016). Regulating the Trade of Commercial Surrogacy in India. Journal of International Business and Law, 15(2), 337–360. https://scholarlycommons.law.hofstra.edu/jibl/vol15/iss2/12

( )مجلہ جامعہ دمشق للعلوم الاقتصادیہ والعلومیہ،استجار الرحم الآثار المترتبۃ علیہ، 2011ء، ج:27،ص:13

Maǧallaẗ Ǧāmiʿaẗ Dimashq lil-ʿUlūmi l-Iqtiṣādīyaẗ wal-ʿIlmīyaẗ, Istijāraẗ al-Raḥmi l-Āṯāri l-Mutarattiḅaẗ ʿAlay.hā, 2011, V:27, P:13.

( )ایضاً،ص:15

Ibid., P:15

( ) Strasser, M. (2015). Traditional Surrogacy Contracts, Partial Enforcement, and the Challenge for Family Law. Journal of Health Care Law and Policy, 18. http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/jhclphttp://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/jhclp/vol18/iss1/4

( ) Brinsden, P. R. (2003). Gestational surrogacy. Human Reproduction Update, 9(5), 483–491. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmg033

( )Dr. Altaf Hussain Langrial & Muhammad Muslim, “The Concept of Surrogate Mother in the Modern World in the Islamic Perspective,” Al-Idah 29, no. 2 (2014): 61–92, http://al-idah.szic.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/227/215.

( )Ibid.

( )مقالہ تاجیر الارحام فی الفقہ الاسلامی، ہند الخولی، مجلۃ جامعہ دمشق العلوم الاقتصادیہ و القانونیہ، ۲۰۱۱ء ، ج۲۷ ، شمارہ ۳،، ص۲۸۲۔۲۸۵

Maqālaẗ Tāǧīri l-Arḥāmi fī l-Fiqhi l-Islāmī, Hind al-Khūlī, Maǧallaẗ Ǧāmiʿaẗ Dimashq lil-ʿUlūmi l-Iqtiṣādīyaẗ wal-Qānūnīyaẗ, 2011, V:27, Shumāra:3, P:282-285.

( ) مجلہ جامعہ دمشق للعلوم الاقتصادیہ والعلومیہ،استجار الرحم الآثار المترتبۃ علیہ ، 2011ء، ج:27ص:13

Maǧallaẗ Ǧāmiʿaẗ Dimashq lil-ʿUlūmi l-Iqtiṣādīyaẗ wal-ʿIlmīyaẗ, Istijāraẗ al-Raḥmi l-Āṯāri l-Mutarattiḅaẗ ʿAlay.hā, 2011, V:27, P:13.

( )Surrogate pregnancy: an analysis of the current situation. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2021, from https://www.fundaciogrifols.org/documents/4662337/4689023/ethicq3.pdf/78934497-1a3c-479e-8fbe-31156b860199

( )Dr. Altaf Hussain Langrial & Muhammad Muslim, “The Concept of Surrogate Mother in the Modern World in the Islamic Perspective,” Al-Idah 29, no. 2 (2014): 61–92, http://al-idah.szic.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/227/215.

( ) Surrogate pregnancy: an analysis of the current situation. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2021, from https://www.fundaciogrifols.org/documents/4662337/4689023/ethicq3.pdf/78934497-1a3c-479e-8fbe-31156b860199

( ) Cherry, April. 2001. “Nurturing in the Service of White Culture: Racial Subordination, Gestational Surrogacy, and the Ideology of Motherhood.” Texas Journal of Women & Law 10:169.

( ) Anon. n.d. “Human Trafficking Suspected in Thai Nine-Baby Discovery | The Japan Times.” Retrieved August 3, 2021a (https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/08/07/national/thai-lawyer-claims-nine-babies-surrogate-kids-japanese-father/).

( ) Anon. n.d. “Intercountry Surrogacy – A New Form of Trafficking? - Federal Circuit Court of Australia.” Retrieved August 8, 2021b (http://www.federalcircuitcourt.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/fccweb/reports-and-publications/speeches-conference-papers/2012/speech-pascoe-legalwise-2012).

( )Anon. n.d. “Workers or Mothers? The Business of Surrogacy in Russia | OpenDemocracy.” Retrieved August 8, 2021 (https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/beyond-trafficking-and-slavery/workers-or-mothers-business-of-surrogacy-in-russia/).

( ) Zoloth, L., & Henning, A. A. (2010). Bioethics and Oncofertility: Arguments and Insights from Religious Traditions. Cancer Treatment and Research, 156, 261. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6518-9_20

( ) Schenker, J. G. (1997). Infertility evaluation and treatment according to Jewish law. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 71(2), 113–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-2115(96)02621-8

( ) Bhattacharyya, S. (2006). Magical Progeny, Modern Technology: A Hindu Bioethics of Assisted Reproductive Technology.

( ) Schenker, J. G. (1997). Infertility evaluation and treatment according to Jewish law. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 71(2), 113–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-2115(96)02621-8

( ) Kahn, Susan Martha. (2000). Reproducing Jews: A Cultural Account of Assisted Conception in Israel. Reproducing Jews. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822378204

( ) Numrich, P. D. (2009). The Problem with Sex According to Buddhism. Dialog, 48(1), 62–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1540-6385.2009.00431.X

( ) Lasker, S. P. (2015). Surrogacy. Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05544-2_409-1

( ) Atighetchi, D., (2007) Islamic bioethics problem and perspective, Netherlands, Springer, P:180.

( )سورۃ المؤمنون:5تا7

Sūraẗ al-Mu’minūn:5-7

( )ایضاً

Ibid.

( )سورۃ الفرقان:54

Sūraẗ al-Furqān:54

( )سورۃ الاحزاب:4-5

Sūraẗ al-Aḥzāb:4-5

( ) Lasker, S. P., & Ghilardi, M. (2018). Genetic Gestational Surrogacy: Hope for Muslims. Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics, 8(3), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3329/bioethics.v8i3.35680

( )سورۃ النساء:23-24

Sūraẗ al-Nisā’:23-24

( )ابوداؤد،سلیمان بن اشعث السجستانی،السنن ، كِتَابُ النِّكَاحِ، بَاب فِي وَطْءِ السَّبَايَا، رقم الحدیث:2158

Abū Dāwūd, Sulaymān bin Ašʿaṯ al-Siǧistānī, al-Sunan, Kitābu n-Nikāḥi, Bābu fī Waṭ’i ṣ-Ṣabāyā, Raqmu l-Ḥadīṯ:2158

( )سورۃ المجادلہ:2

Sūraẗ al-Muǧādalaẗ:2

( )عبد اللہ البسام ،منظمۃ المؤتمر الاسلامی بجدۃ ، مجلۃ مجمع الفقہ السلامی، المقال، اطفال الانابیب،عدد 2-166؛ محمدعلی البار،مجلۃ مجمع الفقہ الاسلامی التابع لمنظمۃ المؤتمرالاسلامی بجدۃ، التلقیح الصناعی،واطفال الانانیب:2-195

ʻAbd Allāh al-Basām, Munazzamaẗ al-Mu’tamar al-Islāmī bi-Ǧiddaẗ, Maǧallaẗ Maǧmaʿ al-Fiqhi l-Salāmī, al-Maqālaẗ, Aṭfālu l-Anābīb, ʿAdad 2-166; Muḥammad ʿAlī al-Bār, Maǧallaẗ Maǧmaʿ al-Fiqhi l-Islāmī al-Tābiʿ li-Munazzamaẗ al-Mu’tamar al-Islāmī bi-Ǧiddaẗ, al-Talqīḥ al-Ṣināʿī, wa-Aṭfālu l-Anānīb:2-195

( )عبد اللہ بن زید آل محمود ،مجلۃ مجمع الفقہ الاسلامی التابع لمنظمۃ المؤتمر الاسلامی بجدۃ، وثائق مقدمۃ للمجمع الحکم الاقناعی فی ابطال التلقیح الصناعی وما یسمی بشتل الجنین، 2-238

ʻAbd Allāh bin Zayd Āl Maḥmūd, Maǧallaẗ Maǧmaʿ al-Fiqhi l-Islāmī al-Tābiʿ li-Munazzamaẗ al-Mu’tamar al-Islāmī bi-Ǧiddaẗ, Wathā’iqu Muqaddamaẗ li-l-Maǧmaʿ al-Ḥukmu l-Iqnāʿī fī Ibṭāli ṭ-Ṭalqīḥi ṣ-Ṣināʿī wa-Mā Yusammī bi-Shatli l-Ǧanīn, 2-238

( )سورۃ المجادلہ:2

Sūraẗ al-Muǧādalaẗ:2

( ) Naqvi, R. (n.d.). Surrogacy and “third-party” donation in Iran: An overview. https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2008.027763

( ) Abbasi-Shavazi, M. J., Inhorn, M. C., Razeghi-Nasrabad, H. B., & Toloo, G. (2008). The “Iranian ART revolution”: infertility, assisted reproductive technology, third party donation in the Islamic Republic of Iran. J Middle East Women’s Stud, 4, 1–28.

( ) Orignal Jurisdiction about Surrogacy in the Federal Shariat Court. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2021, from https://www.federalshariatcourt.gov.pk/Judgments/Sh.Petition No.2-I of 2015.pdf

( ) Ibid.

( )سورۃالشوری:49

Sūraẗ al-Shūrā:49

Published
2023-12-26
How to Cite
Waqas Ali Haider, Dr. Abdul Ghaffar, & Muhammad Yasin Ayoub. (2023). سیروگیسی: بانجھ پن کا علاج یا معاشرتی مسئلہ؟ اسلامی فقہ کی روشنی میں ایک تحقیقی مطالعہ: Surrogacy: A Solution for Infertility or a Social Problem? A Research Study in the Light of Islamic Jurisprudence. AL-QAWĀRĪR, 5(1), 40-60. Retrieved from https://journal.al-qawarir.com/index.php/alqawarir/article/view/288